Intonation 6. The rising and falling of the terminal pitch 6. The rising terminal pitch 6. The falling terminal pitch 6. The rise-rise-fall pattern. The long persistence of Pennsylvania German English for nearly two centuries in an English-speaking territory which was settled by English, Scotch-Irish and Welsh as early as by Germans  , naturally brought about a certain contact between English and German language that influenced both, the generally spoken English and the specific dialect formation that languages borrowed from each other.
This paper is an attempt to show in how far this language contact has caused mutual language borrowings, which were by no means restricted to vocabulary items but also extended to phonological and syntactic features, having as well influential effects on intonational patterns. The settlers spoke a German dialect which was peculiar to the sections from which they came. The early immigrants, mostly religious sects such as e. They first arrived in Philadelphia before the Declaration of Independence in and then began to move towards the fertile areas of the Appalachian Mountains. Although Pennsylvania German English was and still is spoken in complete isolation from the mother country, it exists as a relatively homogeneous dialect spoken across an English-speaking country.
Among the Pennsylvania German speakers there are two different social groups: sectarians and non-sectarians — those who belong to sects and those who do not. The sectarian groups, e. As a consequence, these regions have been to the greater part excluded from the speeding process of urbanization and industrialization, and the Pennsylvania Germans who reside here maintain the family farm tradition of their ancestors. Until today they still speak Pennsylvania German English as a native language in their communities, homes and during worship services; English is only used in school and outside their community.
The relationship of Pennsylvania German toward American English is a stable bilingualism , meaning that each of the two languages is restricted to its proper domain equal to one another. Here, an unstable bilingualism is predominant, marked by a gradual shift towards American English monolingualism. Native speakers of Pennsylvania German English 2.
Nonfluent speakers using Pennsylvania German English only on special occasions and often exhibiting faulty grammar 3. Passive bilinguals understanding Pennsylvania German English but who are not able to speak. Monolinguals of Standard English 5. Exiles who were born in Pennsylvania German areas, but left due to reasons of spouse and occupation and who are neither able to understand nor to speak the dialect.
They began to borrow foreign words, so-called loanwords into their own language. The process of borrowing to which linguists refer to as adlexification was easier to be brought about than to create new words according to word formation rules of the receiving language. Such loanwords are e.
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However, these borrowed words often carry stigmatized meanings within social interactions. Thus, they use American English loanwords to describe negative phenomena which are more part of the English than of the Amish world, e. It is significant to note that not all American English loanwords are motivated by adlexification, but rather by relexification that may be complete or incomplete. Language economy is the keyword: easier to use a word of either dialect or received language than to maintain a bilingual repertoire.
The following words may serve as examples of an incomplete relexification, since, though American English loanwords were carried into Pennsylvania German English and were considered to be part of it, the loanwords only represent alternatives to their Pennsylvania German equivalents, but are not wholly accepted. Contrasting this, the case of complete relexification is found in e. Here, the converging process is complete. Finally, the importation of loanwords into the Pennsylvania German dialect, characterized as lexical instability, is marked by two important aspects:. A qualitative assessment.
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