- D-Day (Normandy Landings) - Topics on mamjoupaguarfi.cf
- D-day veterans and world leaders arrive in Portsmouth to vast security
- OPERATION NEPTUNE: THE NORMANDY LANDINGS 1944
Prior to D-Day, the Allies conducted a large-scale deception campaign designed to mislead the Germans about the intended invasion target.
By late August , all of northern France had been liberated, and by the following spring the Allies had defeated the Germans. The Normandy landings have been called the beginning of the end of war in Europe.
D-Day (Normandy Landings) - Topics on mamjoupaguarfi.cf
The Americans entered the war in December , and by they and the British who had been evacuated from the beaches of Dunkirk in May after being cut off by the Germans in the Battle of France were considering the possibility of a major Allied invasion across the English Channel. The following year, Allied plans for a cross-Channel invasion began to ramp up.
Hitler charged Rommel with finishing the Atlantic Wall, a 2,mile fortification of bunkers, landmines and beach and water obstacles. In the months and weeks before D-Day, the Allies carried out a massive deception operation intended to make the Germans think the main invasion target was Pas-de-Calais the narrowest point between Britain and France rather than Normandy. In addition, they led the Germans to believe that Norway and other locations were also potential invasion targets. Many tactics were used to carry out the deception, including fake equipment; a phantom army commanded by George Patton and supposedly based in England, across from Pas-de-Calais; double agents; and fraudulent radio transmissions.
Eisenhower selected June 5, , as the date for the invasion; however, bad weather on the days leading up to the operation caused it to be delayed for 24 hours. On the morning of June 5, after his meteorologist predicted improved conditions for the following day, Eisenhower gave the go-ahead for Operation Overlord. The eyes of the world are upon you.
Later that day, more than 5, ships and landing craft carrying troops and supplies left England for the trip across the Channel to France, while more than 11, aircraft were mobilized to provide air cover and support for the invasion. By dawn on June 6, thousands of paratroopers and glider troops were already on the ground behind enemy lines, securing bridges and exit roads. The amphibious invasions began at a.
According to some estimates, more than 4, Allied troops lost their lives in the D-Day invasion, with thousands more wounded or missing. Less than a week later, on June 11, the beaches were fully secured and over , troops, more than 50, vehicles and some , tons of equipment had landed at Normandy. For their part, the Germans suffered from confusion in the ranks and the absence of celebrated commander Rommel, who was away on leave. At first, Hitler, believing the invasion was a feint designed to distract the Germans from a coming attack north of the Seine River, refused to release nearby divisions to join the counterattack.
D-day veterans and world leaders arrive in Portsmouth to vast security
Reinforcements had to be called from further afield, causing delays. He also hesitated in calling for armored divisions to help in the defense. Moreover, the Germans were hampered by effective Allied air support, which took out many key bridges and forced the Germans to take long detours, as well as efficient Allied naval support, which helped protect advancing Allied troops.
In the ensuing weeks, the Allies fought their way across the Normandy countryside in the face of determined German resistance, as well as a dense landscape of marshes and hedgerows. By the end of June, the Allies had seized the vital port of Cherbourg, landed approximately , men and , vehicles in Normandy, and were poised to continue their march across France. By the end of August , the Allies had reached the Seine River, Paris was liberated and the Germans had been removed from northwestern France, effectively concluding the Battle of Normandy.
The Allied forces then prepared to enter Germany, where they would meet up with Soviet troops moving in from the east. The Normandy invasion began to turn the tide against the Nazis. A significant psychological blow, it also prevented Hitler from sending troops from France to build up his Eastern Front against the advancing Soviets. Soldiers who went over the sides of the landing craft were dragged down by the weight of their gear. Entire units were wiped out before they were able to fire a shot. Most of the amphibious tanks that were supposed to provide cover for the Omaha Beach landing sank before reaching shore.
Combat engineers in the initial assault wave were supposed to destroy the obstacles that the German defenders had arrayed on the beach and mark the approaches for the landing craft carrying the subsequent assault waves. But strong currents carried the landing craft of the first wave off course by as much as 1, yards. Thus most of the obstacles were not destroyed, and as the follow-on waves approached the beach, men began to use the obstacles as cover from the withering German defensive fire.
The cumulative ill-effects: landing craft began to stack up, men wading ashore were mowed down, and others, paralyzed by fear, drowned as the tide came in. Nonetheless, after suffering 2, casualties, the most of any beach on D-Day, small groups of U. Ideal for defensive warfare, these hedgerows greatly slowed the American advance. Around Caen, British forces were engaged in a battle of attrition with the Germans.
The situation would not change decisively until the U. First Army broke through the German lines at St. Lo on July Much fighting remained. Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne, and Iwo Jima. It deserves to be studied—and remembered—by generations. When we look back on great events, there is a tendency to assume that success was somehow preordained. But as the example of D-Day shows, the actors in this great drama had to overcome seemingly insurmountable obstacles. What would have been the consequences? It would certainly have changed the course of history. Even a stalemate between Germany and the Soviet Union would have meant a whole Continent condemned to live under totalitarianism.
A lengthier war would have given Nazi Germany more time to carry out its policy of destroying European Jewry. Hence D-Day can be understood on several levels. Of course, it is at the visceral human level that D-Day speaks to us 75 years later. Divisions did on Omaha Beach? Such loyalty to the group is the essence of fighting morale.
No matter how good a plan might be, it still must be executed by people. Such a force depends on the military virtues of leadership, physical bravery, and commitment to duty. These are some of the human factors that permit men to confront and adapt to the sort of friction and chaos that prevailed on 6 June.
Army historian, S.
The high ground was won by a handful of men. Fortunately for the United States, the valor of the soldiers who waded ashore against overwhelming odds on D-Day was not an isolated affair. Americans should thank God that the United States is able to produce such men. From to , he was a professor of national security affairs at the U. About the Author. Rommel knew better and had urged deployment of all forces right on the coast to prevent a beachhead of any sort from being gained; and he knew that Allied air superiority another fact Hitler could not accept would devastate the panzer divisions before they could engage the Allies.
Can you imagine the outcome were Hitler NOT such a megalomaniac know-it-all? Think not just of the Allied Landings but think of his mistakes in the Eastern campaign. With Thanks and Gratitude to the multitude of virtuous men and women who have laid down their lives for our freedom.
OPERATION NEPTUNE: THE NORMANDY LANDINGS 1944
It still is. Your email address will not be published. Notify me of follow-up comments by email.
Notify me of new posts by email. This site brings together serious debate, commentary, essays, book reviews, interviews, and educational material in a commitment to the first principles of law in a free society.