In trying treason the Constable was empowered to act on simple inspection of the facts, without customary form of trial and without appeal. Hence you could have a Regent or a Protector or a Council etc. Richard Duke of York was so appointed in and He had already been appointed High Constable for life in and had held the position for over 13 years. Thus he combined the power to identify and suppress rebellion as Protector with the power to take legal action against treason in his own court as Constable.
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Henry VII favoured the encouragement of recently-arrived foreigners to write up his version of history, knowing that they would accept his authorized version in the absence of any personal knowledge to the contrary. This conveniently laid the basis for the disparagement of Richard III that became orthodox in the Tudor era.
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This is Dominic Mancini, an Italian who came to England in , probably at the behest of Angelo Cato a leading light of the French court and a diligent intelligence-gatherer to whom Mancini addressed a report which was discovered in the s. Its finder, Mr C. Armstrong, translated and published it with an introduction and footnotes.
Its context was as follows. It was, of course, an act of extraordinary French belligerence and Edward IV in his ensuing Parliament vowed himself determined upon revenge. By sheer coincidence Mancini then found himself still present during the early months of , a period whose importance eclipsed that of his previous mission. The result is laced with gossip about royal scandals, and totally lacking in first-hand observation about Richard III his readers are even denied a physical description.
If specialists appear to accept them without challenge, it is no wonder that they have become entrenched and generations of historians and commentators will continue to repeat them. I have not proposed anything remotely of this sort, nor do I have any recollection of seeing it called for. It is profoundly depressing to see the suggestion of a serious new work of scholarship dismissed so scathingly.
Who would actually want to see such a travesty? Will she wish to proceed, I wonder? I want no part of it, and have already retracted my former interest. These illustrations had huge relevance for me, because mine was the first book about Richard III to the best of my knowledge that illustrated and examined in depth the myriad implications of the proposed Portuguese marriage treaty.
From the death of her elder brother by she was heiress presumptive and was given the title Princess of Portugal rather than the usual title Infanta. Later, thanks to her extreme piety, she became known as the Holy Princess. It cannot be emphasized too strongly that in the summer of , before Henry Tudor deposed Richard III and set about blackening his name, the Portuguese royal family had no qualms about arranging his marriage to their revered princess, a fact ignored by mainstream historians including Charles Ross.
Clearly she and her family were not taken in by rumours about multiple murders — and especially not by gossip being circulated in England to the effect that the king was a wife-killer. While Joanna begged to be allowed to take the veil, her family unsuccessfully attempted to arrange a succession of dynastic marriages for her, putting forward two royal dukes and three kings see below. Nothing came of these proposals and Joanna eventually was allowed to retire to the monastery of Aveiro where she died unmarried; she was later beatified though not canonized , and the three crowns she was offered feature prominently in her iconography.
The last of these crowns was that of England. Next morning she gave the firm answer that if Richard still lived, she would go to England and marry him. But this was August , and the next news she received was that of Bosworth.
For me, an important aspect of this whole episode was the fact that the Portuguese treaty was clearly not the only possible marriage open to Richard. I have addressed them at length in The Maligned King so I will not examine them here.
Marques, a valued source of information on Portuguese history, I established that there were actually two possible Iberian marriages on the cards simultaneously, the other being with the Infanta of Spain. Thus I formed my conclusion, published in , which I still maintain and which has since gained support: that Elizabeth desired Norfolk to speak to Richard advocating the Portuguese marriage in preference to the Spanish one — for the simple reason that only Portugal offered a royal match for her.
The young Duke of Beja was not only royal but also close to her own age, two qualities which were unlikely to present themselves in any other suitor. This is why it was important for me to find images of Joanna and Manuel for my book, emphasizing and illustrating for the first time this future as envisaged by Richard III, which traditional historians had consistently overlooked.
As with all my illustrations I took pains to find images that were as authentic as possible and closely depicted the reality of the period. I promised to return to the offers from three kings for the hand of Princess Joanna, and this allows me to add a little to her story. Gomes dos Santos that the suggestion of the Dauphin or King of France seems to be untenable in both cases.
It concerns one of the most baffling incidents of the Richard III story: the plot that resulted in the execution of William, Lord Hastings. First let me run through the factual circumstances of the incident itself. Forget Tudor stories of witchcraft and withered arms; forget the small-talk of strawberries suddenly transmogrified into murderous fury; forget convenient self-incrimination provided by go-betweens. Colourful as these devices are, any creative writer will recognize them as classic misdirection.
By contrast, there is a credible, gold standard, on-the-spot report, written in , and available to us since the s.
If only it had been known years earlier, all that Tudor fiction might have been exposed or maybe the document would have been destroyed along with so much else, who knows? Anyway, we have it now and we ignore it at our peril. It was provided by the Italian cleric Dominic Mancini who was in London at the time, as an agent for the French court, and reporting within a few months of the event.
Although not present himself, he would have gleaned information immediately. Two other influential ringleaders were arrested with him for the same offence, but being in holy orders they escaped with their lives thanks to Benefit of Clergy. One was Archbishop Rotherham, a man of authority and ability; the other was Bishop Morton, a man of great resource and daring, with a career in party intrigue dating back at least twenty years to the Lancastrian era of Henry VI mark those words.
The incident took place at about Men at arms, stationed nearby, were summoned by Richard upon his cry of 'ambush'. A public proclamation to the above effect was issued right away. Richard at the time had made no claim on the throne. By contrast it was Richard's special prerogative, as High Constable of England, to try the crime of treason in his own Constable's Court, to pronounce on guilt and to pass sentence without the possibility of appeal. The evidence for this appears in my recent book on the offices of Protector and Constable.
The author expostulates over the beheading and arrests, on which he spends many words of personal opinion and judgement. From what he writes, it is clear that he was no more present in the Tower than the Italian was.
The meeting was a Council meeting called for 13 June. Council attendance had been divided in advance by the Protector so that one group met at Westminster and another at the Tower. We have no eyewitness account that contradicts the facts officially announced, and recorded by Mancini, i. Nevertheless it is glaringly obvious that this treasonous attack was early on parlayed into entrapment of blameless individuals by the wicked Lord Protector. Working with these background facts, I have my own ideas of what the conspirators had in mind. And it had everything to do with why they chose to attack Richard at the Tower of London.
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My imagined scenario starts with the question of motive. All it required was to eliminate the Protector. Like many others, Rotherham could no longer look for patronage to the Woodvilles, now absconded, disgraced and excluded from government after their failed attempt to oust Richard.
The demonstrated long game of Bishop John Morton, that supreme political operator, certainly centred on grasping any opportunity for subversion in the interests of his Lancastrian patron, Lady Margaret Beaufort, and her son Henry Tudor. Having learned that Hastings, Rotherham and Morton were meeting together, Richard was concerned enough to write to his northern supporters, a few days before the Hastings attack, requesting armed support.
In subsequent centuries suspects would have been picked off one by one with the knock on the door in the small hours of the morning, but we know of no arrests in the days leading up to 13 June. This is teaching me to be prepared for new business at all times. I want to think about how I can reward my current clients for their amazing gesture. The fact that clients have recommended me to others is not only flattering. It also tells me that I must be doing something right. And that excites me! However, on second thought…why am I so obsessed with these numbers?
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The people that get you. Nevertheless, she did bare her navel in all the films, and wore a bikini in Bikini Beach With rock'n'roll movies a thing of the past and twist movies on their last swaying legs, the Beach Party films, made for the youth market, invariably involved a group of young, scantily clad surfers defending their right to continue their love-ins and gyrations to surf music without interference from killjoy "squares". However, Funicello, Avalon and the gang were no rebels without causes, but credits to the community.
The first film of the naive series, which opened with the title number sung by Funicello and Avalon, concerned an anthropology professor, Robert Cummings, studying the "mating habits" of the teenage denizens of Malibu beach. With not much sex to study, but to help his research, the professor makes an unthreatening play for Funicello, who is determined to make Avalon jealous and force him to marry her. Avalon makes Funicello jealous in Muscle Beach Party , in which the surfers clash with a group of musclemen sent to ruin the kids' fun.
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Bikini Beach had Keenan Wynn attempting to evict surfers from the beach and prove that his chimpanzee is more intelligent than the average American teenager. However, what was noticeable was how much Funicello became wittier, sharper and sexier with each picture … and her singing improved! Away from the surf and sand, Funicello and Avalon were teamed up again for Fireball , in which he competes, on and off the stock car racing track, with a fellow driver for her affections.